Water filtration is very important for almost all irrigation systems, but especially for micro-irrigation.
A proper filtration can help to extend the lifetime and improve maintenance of any irrigation system. Filtration is a fundamental requirement for the drip tapes in order to avoid clogging. A grain of sand, rust and other materials can block the emitters and cause involuntary dehydration of the plants.
Multiple sources of water such as reservoirs, rivers and especially groundwater may contain solid substances, such as sand of various grain sizes, which must be removed before the water is sent to the irrigation system
Hydrocyclone filters are mainly used for the removal of suspended solid elements in the irrigation water. They are an ideal solution when sand is present in the water.
How does it work?
Sandy water enters the filter and swirls inside a cylinder. The entrance is driven by the inlet pressure, which may not be exaggerated, as the system is based on speed that can be increased in relation to the inlet diameter. The centrifugal force pushes heavier sand particles outwards; they descend to the bottom of the filter by gravity and set in an accumulation chamber from which they can be easily removed.
After having deposited the solid particles, the water is conveyed by the vortex itself towards the outlet of the device.
Centrifugal hydrocyclone filters are reasonably cheap, very simple and
very effective for removing sand from water. Since many wells pump water with sand they are widely used.
Useful tips on hydrocyclone filters
However, some precautions should be takes while choosing the size of the hydrocyclone filter. It must always be slightly undersized with respect to the quantity of water it must treat, precisely in relation to the speed that it has to reach inside. Therefore, the flow and pressure curves should be always checked beforehand for an effective filter operation.
Since it is difficult to eliminate all solid particles, after having used a hydrocyclone filter, it is highly recommended to place a disc filter downstream a hydrocyclone filter, to prevent the remaining particles from clogging drip tape emitters. In this way, your system reaches a safety level with a water cleanliness of at least 90%.